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Abstract Detail

Comparative Genomics/Transcriptomics

Barrett, Craig [1], Bacon, Christine [2], Antonelli, Alexandre [2], McKain, Michael [3].

Genome Evolution and Diversification in Palms.

Processes contributing to genome size variation in plants include polyploidy (genome doubling/merging), tandem duplication, expansion/contraction of repetitive regions such as transposable elements, illegitimate/intramolecular recombination, fractionation/diploidization, and selection for smaller genomes. The palms (family Arecaceae) are diverse, widespread, and ecologically successful components of tropical ecosystems, with >2,500 species. Based on available data across the family, genome size and chromosome number vary immensely. Modal haploid chromosome numbers are 16 and 18 within the species-rich subfamilies Arecoideae and Coryphoideae, respectively, while patterns of genome sizes based on C-values are less clear. Recent studies demonstrate strong correlations between genome size variation and species diversity, suggesting that polyploidy or other mechanisms of genome size change potentially confer selective advantages due to the introduction of genomic novelty. Here we aim to test that hypothesis in palms and their close relatives, the commelinid monocots (grasses, gingers, dasypogonoids, etc.). We address potential correlations between chromosome number and C-value across the family, accounting for phylogenetic relationships, and reconstruct ancestral chromosome numbers and genome sizes. We use available genomic and transcriptomic data to investigate evidence for polyploidy among the commelinids and within the palms (at the subfamily level) by comparing the divergence distribution of paralogous sequences, and by the use of species/gene tree methods. Lastly, we investigate the mechanisms of genome size variation by exploring repeat type and content based on ‘genome skim’ data. Disentangling the causes of genome size variation in palms will help us understand the genomic conditions facilitating adaptive radiation and ecological success in other important clades.

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1 - West Virginia University, Biology, 53 Campus Drive, Morgantown, WV, 26506, USA
2 - University of Gothenburg, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Carl Skottsbergs gata 22B, Göteborg, 41319 , Sweden
3 - The Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, 975 North Warson Rd., St. Louis, MO, 63132, USA

transposable element
genome size
chromosome number
ancestral state
Whole Genome Duplication
paralogous genes.

Presentation Type: Oral Paper
Session: 10, Comparative Genomics and Transcriptomics
Location: Fort Worth Ballroom 5/Omni Hotel
Date: Monday, June 26th, 2017
Time: 2:00 PM
Number: 10003
Abstract ID:389
Candidate for Awards:Margaret Menzel Award

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